Objectives: To study acute respiratory infections of children less than 2 years of age in Riyadh City and their sociodemographic and anthropometric correlates. Methods: Study subjects included 250 mothers selected by systematic random sampling from mothers attending 5 Primary Health Care Centers selected by simple random sampling from the 5 geographical zones (one from each zone) in Riyadh during a one month period. Data was collected via a structured pilot tested modified questionnaire filled in by trained research assistants who interviewed mothers regarding acute respiratory infections during the past 2 weeks in their children aged less than 2 years. Heights and weights of both children and mothers were measured and the necessary sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers, and children were collected by the research assistants in addition to mothers' practices concerning their childs' acute respiratory infections. Results: The prevalence of acute respiratory infection in children was 24%, mostly in children whose mothers are less educated, aged 35 years or more, married at age 25 years or more and whose relatives take care of their children while working outside the home. The children affected were mostly 7-12 months of age, lighter in weight, not vaccinated, with no follow up cards and not weighed during the last 4 months. About 3 quarters of the mothers consulted somebody about acute respiratory infections, mostly at modern health facilities particularly government Primary Health Care Centers. Tachypnea, or diarrhea or both were the most important symptoms urging mothers to seek medical advice. Working mothers whose children are taken care of by relatives is the only significant predictor of acute respiratory infections, and children with a follow up card is the only significant predictor for consulting somebody about acute respiratory infections. Conclusion: Intervention strategies to control acure respiratory infections in children less than 2 years of age should target working mothers, less educated mothers, malnourished unvaccinated children and encourage periodic follow up visits for children.