Patterns of Maxillofacial Injuries in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review
The objective of this review was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial fractures (MFFs), to establish the prevalence of MFFs, and to recognise the major causative factors in both males and females in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Study design:The protocol of this systematic reviews was established according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P); the following databases were searched: PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science. We used STROBE checklist to assess the risk of bias in all identified studies, 37 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, and hence were selected for analysis. Results: A total of 27,994 patients (22,965 males and 5,129 females) ranging from 0 to 97 years who experienced maxillofacial injuries during the study period were entered into this review. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of MFF followed by falls. The mandible was the most common site of injury. In the MENA region, males outnumbered females in terms of maxillofacial injuries with a ratio of 4.5:1. Conclusion: Maxillofacial fractures are highly prevalent in the MENA region, and they are mainly caused by RTAs, especially among young males. Therefore, the concerned authorities need to employ and implement stricter traffic rules in order to minimise the risk of maxillofacial injuries and their subsequent increased morbidity and mortality rates.