Between November 1991 and March 1992, 37 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis occurred in Jordan, where none had been reported since 1988. Of these, 17 (50%) of 34 patients had received at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3). The first and 2 subsequent case-patients were children of Pakistani migrant workers, and the first g and a total of 27 (75%) case-patients resided in or near the Jordan Valley. A seroepidemiologic study of 987 children in all regions of Jordan was performed to assess OPV3 coverage and immune response to OPV. Although OPV3 coverage by 12 months of age was high (96%) in the general population, coverage was lower among Pakistani (21%). Bedouin (63%), and Gypsy (9%) children (P < .001). Seroprevalences for poliovirus type 3 were 71% in the Jordan Valley versus 81% in other regions after 3 doses of OPV (P < .06) and 77% in the Jordan Valley versus 98% in other regions after 5 doses of OPV (P < .001). This outbreak demonstrates the importance of achieving high seroimmunity to infection in all geographic areas to prevent the reintroduction and spread of imported strains of wild poliovirus.