Portulaca oleracea and Portulaca quadrifida Linn. belong to the family Portulacaceae. Both plant species possess several similar medicinal effects, allowing one to act as a substitute for the other in traditional herbal practice. These species possess an important neuroprotective activity and can modulate stress due to their significant anticonvulsant, antianxiety, and antidepressant properties. Besides, neuroprotection ability, P. oleracea is known for its wound healing, anti-ulcerogenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antiaging, antinociceptive, and muscle relaxant activities. While P. quadrifida has similar uses of P. oleracea, in addition, it is useful in treating cough, asthma, urinary discharges, hemorrhoids, ulcers, gastrointestinal ailments, dysentery, and has anti-inflammatory property. The present chapter discusses the important neuroprotective activity and other therapeutic benefits of two Portulaca species.
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