Nanocomposites drug delivery systems for the healing of bone fractures
The skeletal system is fundamental for the structure and support of the body consisting of bones, cartilage, and connective tissues. Poor fracture healing is a chief clinical problem leading to disability, extended hospital stays and huge financial liability. Even though most fractures are cured using standard clinical methods, about 10% of fractures are delayed or non-union. Despite decades of progress, the bone-targeted delivery system is still restricted due to the distinctive anatomical bone features. Recently, various novel nanocomposite systems have been designed for the cell-specific targeting of bone, enhancing drug solubility, improving drug stability and inhibiting drug degradation so that it can reach its target site without being removed in the systemic circulation. Such targeting systems could consist of biological compounds i.e. bone marrow stem cells (BMSc), growth factors, RNAi, parathyroid hormone or synthetic compounds, i.e. bisphosphonates (BPs) and calcium phosphate cement. Hydrogels and nanoparticles are also being employed for fracture healing. In this review, we discussed the normal mechanism of bone healing and all the possible drug delivery systems being employed for the healing of the bone fracture.