The purpose of this study is to identify factors that influence knowledge management and evaluate its effectiveness in non-governmental organizations in the context of an integrative-oriented approach. The assessment framework for knowledge management effectiveness offered in this study permits the evaluation of decision-making alternatives and their impact on the effectiveness of knowledge management. The analysis of knowledge management effectiveness was performed using a coefficient-based assessment method on practices such as knowledge creation, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge attraction. The assessment framework incorporates both rational and asymmetry-driven styles in the decision-making practice. The study involved six non-governmental organizations of various specializations from across the globe. The majority of non-governmental organizations showed an upward trend in the knowledge management effectiveness over the past five years. The knowledge creation asymmetry was established. The analysis of knowledge management alternative revealed that five out of six non-governmental organizations should continue those process that were effective at the time of the study and only one organization needs to move to a practice that was less effective during the research period. The major finding is that actions aimed at enhancing the least effective practice will fail to be as effective as the asymmetry-driven decision, even if they ensure a double increment. © 2020, Bucharest University of Economic Studies Publishing House. All rights reserved.