This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of diazepam in the presence and absence of glibenclamide, metformin or their combination on serum levels of glucose, insulin and chromium in rats. Results indicated that diazepam (10 mg/kg i.p.) induced marked hyperglycaemic effects in hyperglycaemic rats. This effect was associated with significant reductions in serum chromium levels and insignificant reduction in serum insulin levels. Diazepam-induced hyperglycaemia was counter-acted by concurrent administration of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg orally), metformin (500 mg/kg orally) or their combination. The effect of diazepam on serum chromium level was counteracted partially by administration of glibenclamide and augmented in the presence of metformin or its combination with glibenclamide. It is concluded that the diazepam-induced hyperglycaemia, as well as the hypoglycaemic effect of glibenclamide, might be related to changes in serum chromium levels. © 1989 Plenum Publishing Corporation.