The role of inflammatory mediators in dental pulp is unique. The local environment of pulp responds to any changes in the physiology that are highly fundamental, like odontoblast cell differentiation and other secretory activity. The aim of this review is to assess the role of cathelicidins based on their capacity to heal wounds, their immunomodulatory potential, and their ability to stimulate cytokine production and stimulate immune-inflammatory response in pulp and periapex. Accessible electronic databases were searched to find studies reporting the role of cathelicidins in pulpal inflammation and regeneration published between September 2010 and September 2020. The search was performed using the following databases: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO and PubMed. The electronic search was performed using the combination of keywords “cathelicidins” and “dental pulp inflammation”. On the basis of previous studies, it can be inferred that LL-37 plays an important role in odontoblastic cell differentiation and stimulation of antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, based on these outcomes, it can be concluded that LL-37 plays an important role in reparative dentin formation and provides signaling for defense by activating the innate immune system. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.