Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is recognized as one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Searching and validation for a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent its progress are promising. This work aimed to assess the retinal protective effects of duloxetine (DLX) in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice model. Animals were equally and randomly divided to four groups (eight mice per group); group 1: is the control group, 2: diabetic group, 3&4: diabetic and after 9 weeks received DLX for 4 weeks (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg), respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed nerve growth factor (NGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) genes upregulation in the diabetic group compared to controls. Also, increased retinal malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decline of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were observed. The morphometric analysis of diabetic retina revealed a significant reduction in total retinal thickness compared to control. Diabetic retinal immunostaining and Western blot analyses displayed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) proteins expression upregulation as well as glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) downregulation comparing to controls. However, DLX-treated groups showed downregulated NGF, iNOS, and TGF-β that was more obviously seen in the DLX-30 mg/kg group than DLX-15 mg/kg group. Furthermore, these groups showed amelioration of the oxidative markers; MDA and GSH, retaining the total retinal thickness nearly to control, GFAP and VEGF downregulation, and GLUT-1 upregulation compared to diabetic group. Taken together, it could be summarized that duloxetine can attenuate DR via the anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidative properties as well as modulating the angiogenic and the neurotrophic factors expressions. This could hopefully pave the road to be included in the novel list of the therapeutic regimen for DR after validation in the clinic.