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Dietary practices among patients with type 2 diabetes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
B.A. Mohamed, A.M. Almajwal, A.A. Saeed,
Published in WFL Publisher Ltd.
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Pages: 110 - 114
Objective of the study was to describe the dietary practices of Saudis with type two diabetes and to compare these with the recommended practices. A total of 222 Saudi Arabian patients (120 females and 102 males) with type 2 diabetes were recruited randomly from the Diabetic Centre at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anonymous questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recall were completed by the participants. The questionnaires included data on daily dietary intake; number and regularity of snacks; food items used in snacks; use of sugar, soft drinks and dairy products; and intake of fruits, vegetables, meat and chicken. The response to each question was scored from 1 (poor practice) to 3 (good practice). Laboratory data for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar, serum triglycerides and serum cholesterol values were extracted from medical records. The overall mean dietary practice was 2.05 ± 0.46. The highest mean dietary practice was obtained for the number of regular meals eaten daily (2.56 ± 0.34) with the highest percentage (59.9%) occurring for three meals. The lowest mean dietary practice was obtained for the number of times fruits and vegetables were eaten (1.24 ± 0.22), with the highest percentage (81.5%) occurring for moderate consumption (1-2) times per week. Complying with dietician visits also had a low mean score (1.57 ± 0.31), with highest percentage (78.8%) occurring for no visits. The average total energy intake was 1481.4 kcal/day. Carbohydrates, fiber, protein and fat consumption were 210.7, 24.3, 85.6, and 51.4 g/day, respectively. Cholesterol was 118.4 mg/day. Fat consumption was 51.4% of total energy intake, with saturated fat at 4.8%, monounsaturated fat at 11.3%, and polyunsaturated fat at 9.5% of total energy consumed. About 50% of the participants met the ADA recommendation for saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Lipid profiles and blood glucose levels were not in line with recommendations for most of the participants, with percentages exceeding 75% for fasting blood sugar level and HBA1c. Based on these findings, the dietary practices of diabetic patients are inadequate and effective dietary intervention is needed.
About the journal
JournalJournal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
PublisherWFL Publisher Ltd.