The effects of tetracycline and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid on the clinical parameters and subgingival flora of eight patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis was assessed. Subjects received either tetracycline 250 mg four times daily or amoxycillin 250 mg with clavulanic acid 125 mg three times daily for a period of 2 weeks together with subgingival scaling and root planing. Both treatment regimens produced significant reductions in bleeding on probing and probing pocket depths which were still present 16 weeks after the antibiotic therapy. A significant reduction in the mean percentage of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum and anaerobic corroding bacilli was also obtained. Both treatment regimens were equally effective in reducing the clinical parameter and altering the subgingival flora. The MIC values for Bacteroides gingivalis (Porphyromonas gingivalis), Bacteroides intermedius (Prevotella intermedia) and F. nucleatum to amoxycillin with clavulanic acid remained constant throughout the period of investigation. The MIC values of these organisms to tetracycline increased. © 1991.