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Alternatives to biological skin in permeation studies: Current trends and possibilities
, Rabin Neupane, Jwala Renukuntla, R. Jayachandra Babu, Amit K. Tiwari
Published in MDPI
Volume: 12
Issue: 2
The transdermal route of drugs has received increased attention in recent years due to numerous advantages over the oral and injectable routes, such as avoidance of the hepatic metabolism, protection of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract, sustained drug delivery and good patient compliance. The assessment of ex vivo permeation during the pharmaceutical development process helps in understanding the product quality and performance of a transdermal delivery system. Generally, excised human skin relevant to the application site or animal skin is recommended for ex vivo permeation studies. However, the limited availability of the human skin and ethical issues surrounding the use of animal skin rendered these models less attractive in the permeation study. In the last three decades, enormous efforts have been put into developing artificial membranes and 3D cultured human skin models as surrogates to the human skin. This manuscript provides an insight on the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines for permeation studies and the parameters affected when using Franz diffusion cells in the permeation study. The need and possibilities for skin alternatives, such as artificially cultured human skin models, parallel artificial membrane permeability assays (PAMPA) and artificial membranes for penetration and permeation studies, are comprehensively discussed.
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